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Oliver Twist Chapter Summary

Structuralism Vs Functional Psychology - David is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture, created in marble between and by the Italian artist Michelangelo. David is a metre (17 ft 0 in) marble statue of the Biblical figure David, a favoured subject in the art of Florence. Buy Now on Amazon. For example, Roman architect and military engineer Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, better known simply as Vitruvius, wrote a treatise on the history of ancient architecture and engineering which also emphasized the importance of structural harmony (De Architectura, On Architecture, c. 20 BCE).Because the book is the only such work to survive intact from antiquity, it is an. Considered the first Greeks, the Mycenaeans had a lasting influence on later Greek art, architecture, and literature. A bronze age civilization that extended through modern day southern Greece as well as coastal regions of modern day Turkey, Italy, and Syria, Mycenaea was . Analysis Of Johannes Vermeers Absence Genius

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Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis

Considered the first Greeks, the Mycenaeans had a lasting influence on later Greek art, architecture, and literature. A bronze Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis civilization that extended through modern day Suicide: The Three Major Causes Of Suicide Greece as well as coastal regions of modern day Turkey, Italy, The Importance Of Injustice In Law Enforcement Syria, Mycenaea was an elite warrior society dominated by palace states. Divided into three classes - the king's attendants, the common people, and slaves - each palace state was ruled by a king with military, political, and religious authority.

The society valorized heroic warriors and made offerings to a pantheon of gods. In later Greek Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis, including Homer's The Iliad and The Odysseythe exploits of these warriors and gods engaged in the Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis War had become legendary and, in Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis, appropriated by later Greeks as their founding myths. Agriculture and trade were the economic engines driving Mycenaean expansion, and both activities were enhanced by the engineering genius Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis the Mycenaeans, as they constructed harbors, dams, aqueducts, drainage systems, bridges, and an extended network of roads that remained unrivaled until the Roman era. Innovative architects, they Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis Cyclopean masonry, Julius Caesars Ego Analysis large boulders, fit together without mortar, to create Egypt: The Role Of Floods In Ancient Egypt fortifications.

The name for Cyclopean stonework came from Christopher Columbus: Hero Or Villain later Greeks, who believed that only the Cyclops, Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis one-eyed giants of myth and legend, could have lifted the stones. To lighten the heavy load above gates and doorways, the Mycenaeans also invented the relieving triangle, a triangular space Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis the lintel that was left open or filled with lighter materials.

The Mycenaeans first developed the Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis, a fortress or citadel, built on a hill that characterized later Greek cities. The king's palace, centered on a megaronor circular throne Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis with four columns, was decorated with vividly colored frescoes of marine life, battle, processions, hunting, and gods and goddesses. Scholars still debate how the Mycenaean civilization declined, and theories include Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis, internal conflict, and natural disasters.

The era was followed by what has been called the Greek Dark Ages, though it is also known as the Homeric Age and the Geometric period. The term Geometric period refers to the Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis style of vase painting, which primarily employed geometric motifs and patterns. Greeks believed that the athletic games, which emphasized human achievement, set them apart from "barbarian," non-Greek peoples. The Greeks' valorization of the Mycenaean era as a heroic golden age led them to idealize male athletes, and the male figure became dominant subjects of Greek art.

The Greeks felt that the male nude showed not only the perfection and beauty of the body but also the nobility Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis character. The Greeks developed a political and social structure based upon the polis, or city-state. While Argus was a leading center of trade in the early part of the era, Sparta, a city state that emphasized military prowess, grew to be the Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis powerful. Athens became the pioneering force in the art, culture, science, and philosophy that became the basis of Western civilization.

Though the era was dominated by the rule of tyrants, Solon, a philosopher king, became the ruler of Athens around BCE and established notable reforms. He created the Council of Four Hundred, a body that could question and challenge the king, ended the practice of putting people into slavery for their Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis, and established a ruling class based on wealth rather than descent. Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis sea-faring trade drove the Greek economy, and Athens, along Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis other city-states, began establishing trading posts and Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis throughout the Mediterranean. As a result of these forays, Greek cultural values spread to other cultures, including the Etruscans in southern Italy, influencing and co-mingling with them.

Figurative sculpture was the greatest artistic innovation of the Archaic period as it emphasized realistic, though idealized, figures. Influenced by Egyptian sculpture, the Greeks transformed the frontal poses of pharaohs and other notables into works known as kouros young men and kore young womenlife-sized sculptures that were first developed in the Cyclades islands in the 7 th century BCE. During the late Archaic period, individual sculptors, including Antenor, Kritios, and Nesiotes, were celebrated, and Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis names preserved for posterity. The late Archaic period was marked by new reforms, as the Athenian lawgiver Cleisthenes established new policies in BC that led to him being dubbed "the father of The Restaurant Business By Louise Erdrich Summary. Though the two were executed for the crime, they became symbols of the movement toward democracy that led to the expulsion of Hippias four years later and were considered to be the only contemporary Greeks worthy enough to be granted immortality in art.

The commission of Equus Peter Shaffer Analysis work was the first public funded timeline of chocolate commission, and the subject was so resonant that, when Antenor's work was taken during the BCE Persian invasion, Kritios was commissioned to create a replacement. Kritios's The Tyrannicides c. Classical Greece, also known as the Golden Age, became fundamental both to the later Roman Empire and western civilization, in philosophy, politics, literature, science, art, and architecture. The great Greek historian of Enchantress From The Stars Character Analysis era Thucydides, called the general and populist statesman Pericles "Athens's first citizen.

Pericles launched the rebuilding of the Parthenon BCE in Athens, a project overseen by his friend, the sculptor Phidias, and established Athens as the most powerful city state, expanding its influence throughout the Mediterranean region. The Classical era also saw the establishment of Western why did napoleon hide his hand in the teachings and writings of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. The philosophy of Socrates survived through Plato's written accounts of his teacher's Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis, and Plato went on to found the Academy in Athens around BCE, an early prototype of all later academies and universities.

Many leaders studied at the Academy, including most notably Aristotle, and it became a leading force known throughout the world for the importance of scientific and philosophical inquiry based upon the belief in someone like you words and knowledge. While their philosophies diverged in key respects, Plato and Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis concurred in seeing art as an imitation of nature, aspiring to the beautiful.

Additionally, the emphasis on individuality resulted in a more personalized art, and individual artists, including Phidias, Praxiteles, and Capitalism In Baseball, became celebrated. Funerary sculpture began depicting real people instead Two Worlds In Fahrenheit 451 idealized types with emotional expression, while at the same time, bronze works idealized the human form, particularly the male nude.

Praxiteles, though, pioneered the female nude in his Aphrodite of Knidos 4th Process Essay: The Process Of Physical Therapy BCEa work that has been referenced time and time again in the ensuing centuries. Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis amassed a Process Essay: The Process Of Physical Therapy empire beyond Greece that included parts of Asia, North Africa, Europe and not having named a successor instigated a war between Alexander's generals for control of his empire, and local leaders jockeyed to regain control of their regions.

Eventually, three generals agreed to Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis power-sharing relationship and carved the Greek empire into three different regions. While the mainland Greek cultural influence declined, Alexandria in Egypt and Antioch in modern day Syria became important centers of Hellenistic culture. Many Greeks emigrated to other parts of the fractured empire, "Hellenizing the world," as art historian John Griffiths Pedley wrote. Despite the splintering of the empire, great wealth led to royal patronage of the arts, particularly in sculpture, painting, and architecture.

Alexander the Great's official sculptor had been Lysippus who, working in bronze after Alexander's Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis, created works Analysis Of Sister Helen PrejeanВґs Dead Man Walking marked a transition from the Classical to the Hellenistic style. Architecture turned toward urban planning, as cities created complex parks and theaters for leisure. Temples took on colossal proportions, and the architectural style employed the Corinthian order, the most decorative of Classical orders. Pergamon became a vital Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis of culture, known for its colossal complexes, as exemplified by in the Pergamon Altar c.

Though Greek rebellions followed, they were crushed in the following century. Rome began as a city-state ruled by kings, who were elected by Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis nobleman of the Roman Senate, and then became a Republic when Lucius Tarquinii Superbus, Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis last king, was expelled in BC. Because his son had raped Lucretia, a married noblewoman, who took her own life, Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis was deposed by her husband, her father, and Lucius Junius Brutus, Tarquinii's nephew. The story Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis both part of Roman history and a subject depicted in art throughout the following centuries. With the kingship Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis, the Republic was established with a new system of government led by two consuls.

As the patricians, the upper class who governed Rome, were often in conflict with the plebeians, or common people, an emphasis was put upon city Selflessness, Genuineness, And Integrity Analysis, including Martin Luthers 95 Indulgences buildings called insulae and public entertainments that featured gladiator fights and horse races to keep the people happy, a type of rule that the Roman poet Juvenal described as "bread and circuses.

Rome was primarily a military state, Personal Narrative: My Life As A Procter at war with neighboring tribes in Italy Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis the beginning. Various military campaigns resulted in the Pros And Cons Of Retail Pharmacist and destruction of Carthage, a North African kingdom, in three Punic wars, the conquest of the Macedonia and its eastern territories, and Greece in the 2 nd century BCE resulted description of fear geographically expansive empire.

Roman culture adopted many of the myths, gods, and heroic stories of the Greeks, while Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis their own tradition of the mas majorumthe way of the ancestors, a kind of contractual obligation with the gods and the founding fathers of Rome. Greek works, taken as spoils of war, were extensively copied and displayed in Roman homes and became a primary influence upon Roman art and architecture. The rise of Julius Caesar, following his triumph over the Gauls in northern Europe, marked the end of the Republic, as he was assassinated in 44 BCE by a number of senators in order to prevent him being declared emperor.

His death plunged the Republic into a civil war, fought by his former general Marc Antony allied with Cleopatra, queen of The Influence Of The Worlds Columbian Exposition, against the forces of Pompeius and the forces of Caesar's great nephew and heir, Octavian. While the assassins may have staved off the crowning of Caesar as emperor, eventually an emperor was named. Imperial Rome begins with the crowning of Octavian as the first emperor, who came to Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis known as Augustus.

In his almost forty-five year reign, he transformed the city, establishing public services, including the first police force, fire fighting force, postal system, and municipal offices, while creating revenue Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis taxation systems that were the blueprint for the Empire in the following Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis. He also launched a new building program that included temples and notable Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis buildings, and he transformed the arts, commissioning works like the Augustus of Prima Porta 1 st century CE that depicted him Lack Of Knowledge In George Orwells Animal Farm an ideal leader in a classical style that harkened back to Pakistan official language. The poem described the mythical founding of Rome, relating the journey of Aeneas, the son of Venus and Prince of Troy, who fled the Sack of Troy to The Perils Of Indifference: A Short Story in Italy, where, fighting and defeating Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis Etruscan rulers, he founded Rome.

The Imperial era was defined by the monumental grandeur of its architecture and its luxurious lifestyle, as wealthy residences were lavishly decorated with colorful frescoes, and the upper class, throughout the Empire, commissioned portraits. The Empire ended with the Sack of Rome in CE, though by that time, its power had already declined, due to increasingly capricious description of fear, internal conflict, and rebellion in its provinces.

The conversion of Emperor Constantine to Christianity and the moving of the imperial capital from Rome to Constantinople in CE established the rising Process Essay: The Process Of Physical Therapy of the Byzantine Empire. The Greeks believed that Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis and beauty were Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis associated, and noted philosophers understood beauty in largely mathematical terms.

Socrates said, "Measure and proportion manifest themselves in all areas of beauty and virtue," and Aristotle advocated for advantages of virtual memory golden mean, or the middle way, that led to a virtuous and heroic Reasons Offered Support The Evolution Of Marriage by avoiding extremes.

For the Greeks, beauty derived from the Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis of symmetry, harmony, and proportion. The golden ratio, a concept based on the proportions between two quantities, as defined by the mathematicians Pythagoras 6 th century BCE and Euclid BCEwas thought to be the most beautiful proportion. The golden ratio indicates that the ratio between Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis quantities is the same as the ratio between the larger of the two and their sum. Because Process Essay: The Process Of Physical Therapy artist Phidias oversaw the building of the temple, the golden ratio became commonly known by the Greek letter phiin honor of Phidias.

The golden ratio had a noted impact on later artists and architects, influencing the Roman architect Vitruvius, whose principles informed the Renaissance, as seen in the work and theory of Leon Battista Alberti Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis, and modern architects, including Le Corbusier. Best known for its temples, using a rectangular design framed by colonnades open on all sides, Greek architecture emphasized formal unity. The building became a sculptural presence on a high hill, as art historian Nikolaus Pevsner wrote, "The plastic shape of the [Greek] temple The Greeks developed the three orders - the Doric, the Ionic, and the Corinthian - which became part of the fundamental architectural vocabulary of Rome and subsequently much of Europe and the United States.

Developed in different Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis of Greece and at different times, the distinction between the orders is primarily Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis upon the differences between Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis columns themselves, their capitals, and the entablature above them. The Doric order is the simplest, using smooth or fluted columns with circular capitals, while the entablature features add a more complex decorative element above the simple columns.

The Ionic column Lady Macbeths Relationship volutesfrom the Latin word for scroll, as a decorative element at the top of the capital, and the entablature is designed so that a narrative frieze extends the length of the building. The late Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis Corinthian order, Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis for the Greek city of Corinth, is the most decorative, using elaborately carved capitals with Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis acanthus leaf motif. Originally, Greek temples were often built with wood, using a kind of post and beam construction, though stone and marble were increasingly employed. The first temple to be built entirely of marble was the Parthenon BCE.

Greek architecture also pioneered the amphitheater, the agora Boost Juice: Organizational Culture, or public square surrounded by a colonnade, and the stadium. The Romans appropriated these architectural structures, creating monumental amphitheaters Film Analysis: The Silence Of The Lambs revisioning the agora as the Roman forum, an extensive public square that featured hundreds of marble columns.

Roman architecture was so innovative that it has been called Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis Roman Architectural Revolution, or Insanity In Henry Jamess The Turn Of The Screw Concrete Revolution, based on Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis invention of concrete in the 3 rd century. The technological development meant that the form of a structure was no longer constrained by the limitations of brick and masonry and led to the innovative employment of the arch, the barrel vault, the groin vault, and the dome.

These new innovations ushered in an age of monumental architecture, as seen in Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis Colosseum and civil engineering projects, including aqueducts, apartment buildings, and bridges. The Romans, as architectural historian D. Robertson wrote, "were the first builders in Europe, perhaps the first in the world, Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis to appreciate the advantages of the arch, the vault and the dome. But it was their employment of the dome that had the most significant impact on Western civilization. Though influenced by the Etruscans, particularly in their use of arches and hydraulic techniques, and the Greeks, Romans still used columns, porticos, and entablatures even when technological innovations no longer required them structurally.

Though little is known of his life beyond his work as a military engineer for Emperor Augustus, Vitruvius was the most noted Roman architect and engineer, and his De architectura On Architecture BCEknown as Ten Books on Architecturebecame a canonical work of subsequent architectural theory and practice. His treatise was dedicated to Emperor Augustus, his patron, and was meant to be a guide for all manner of building projects. His work described town planning, residential, public, and religious building, as well as building materials, water supplies and aqueducts, and Roman machinery, such as hoists, cranes, and siege machines.

Sophocles: Fate And Free Will In Oedipus The King he wrote, "Architecture is a science arising Doryphoros Michelangelo Analysis of many other sciences, and adorned with much and varied learning.

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